- Deployment of own cryptocurrencies by Facebook and Amazon.
- ICOs replaced by IEO, STO, where tokens are backed by real assets
- Blockchain based business applications have matured from ideas to pilots with commitments to rollout.
- However many current pilots are about experimentation to prove a theory, rather then a precursor to a rollout
- Many large retailers, such as Carrefour experiment on their own, that is they build their own blockchain.
- Currently, the most visible success lies with consortiums networks, that essentially provide Blockchain-as-a-Service. It is a blockchain configured for a specific use and that anyone can join. IBM is far and away the leader here, with three major different consortiums up on the rise. Example: Food Safety Consortium, with now over 80 companies participating.